Since 2012, research by Axinesis co-founder Dr. Julien Sapin and his team, along with clinical trials conducted in numerous rehabilitation centers, have validated the effectiveness of our interactive neurorehabilitation devices in improving patient outcomes.
Effectiveness of upper-limb robotic-assisted therapy in the early rehabilitation phase after stroke: A single-blind, randomised, controlled trial
In this RCT, 45 patients with acute stroke were randomized to receive either standard therapy, or dose-matched therapy in which 25% of sessions were substituted by robot-assisted therapy (RAT) with REAplan®. Twenty-eight individuals were assessed after the intervention. At 6 months post-stroke, measures of gross manual dexterity, upper-limb ability during functional tasks, and patient social participation were significantly higher in the RAT group, with researchers concluding that RAT combined with conventional therapy during the early stroke rehabilitation phase is more effective than conventional therapy alone for improving these outcomes.
Performance-based robotic assistance during rhythmic arm exercises
This article examined a new performance-based assistance method for training rhythmic movements with a rehabilitation robot. Patients were encouraged to improve movement features of smoothness, velocity, and amplitude. The assistance’s effectiveness with stroke patients was established since it (i) adapts to the patient’s real-time performance, (ii) improves patient motor performance, and (iii) does not lead the patient to slack. This led researchers to conclude the performance-based assistance method for training rhythmic movements is a viable candidate to complement robot-assisted upper-limb therapies for training a larger motor repertoire.
Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years
This study was the first to determine age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values by examining movement in 370 healthy subjects aged 3-93 years. Participants performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan®, with 26 kinematic indices computed for the four tasks. Of these, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect.
Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.
This study was the first to use a robotic device to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms by measuring movements in 93 healthy children aged 3-12 years. Four tasks were performed with the REAplan®, with 28 kinematic indices computed. Twenty-four of these showed improvement during childhood, with older children showing better upper limb movements.
Upper Limb Robot-Assisted Therapy in Cerebral Palsy: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
This RCT randomized 16 children with cerebral palsy to either five conventional therapy sessions per week, or 3 conventional therapy sessions and 2 robot-assisted sessions with REAplan® per week, over 8 weeks. During each robot assisted session, patients performed 744 movements on average. Among the variables assessed, the smoothness of movement and manual dexterity assessed by the Box and Block test improved significantly more in the robotic group than in the control group.
Using the robotic device REAplan as a valid, reliable, and sensitive tool to quantify upper limb impairments in stroke patients
This prospective cohort study aimed to validate a protocol assessing upper limb kinematics using the REAplan® robot among stroke patients. Forty-four kinematic indices were obtained from 4 tasks performed by 25 stroke patients and 25 age-matched healthy subjects. In stroke patients, 43 kinematic indices showed moderate to excellent reliability. In healthy subjects, 25 kinematic indices showed moderate to excellent reliability and 3 showed a laterality effect. Of the 44 indices, 27 were altered in stroke patients compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.05). A principal component analysis allowed the elaboration of a 5-indice protocol version. Researchers concluded this study provides a standardized, valid, reliable and sensitive protocol to quantify upper limb impairments in stroke patients using a planar robot.
A robotic device as a sensitive quantitative tool to assess upper limb impairments in stroke patients: A preliminary prospective cohort study
This prospective cohort study compared kinematic indices in 10 age-matched healthy subjects and 10 stroke patients by evaluating various tasks performed with the REAplan® robotic device, with the aim of providing an objective and standardized protocol to assess upper limb impairments in stroke patients. Various kinematic indices were analysed from 3 randomly assigned tasks (large-amplitude, targeted, and geometrical movements) performed by the affected arm in stroke patients and the dominant arm in healthy subjects. For large-amplitude movements, the stroke patients' path lengths were less constant in amplitude, less rectilinear and less smooth than those for healthy subjects (p < 0.001). For targeted movements, the stroke patients' path lengths were less rectilinear than those of the healthy subjects (p < 0.001). For geometrical movements, the stroke patients had greater difficulty making the requested shapes compared with the healthy subjects (p < 0.01). Researchers suggested further randomized controlled trials could use this quantitative tool to assess efficacy of treatments such as robot-assisted therapy.